"I THINK WE'RE WINNING, OKAY?"

Eliot Weinberger: What I heard about Iraq in 2005

London Review of Books | Vol. 28 No. 1 dated 5 January 2006

In 2005 I heard that Coalition forces were camped in the ruins of Babylon. I heard that bulldozers had dug trenches through the site and cleared areas for helicopter landing pads and parking lots, that thousands of sandbags had been filled with dirt and archaeological fragments, that a 2600-year-old brick pavement had been crushed by tanks, and that the moulded bricks of dragons had been gouged out from the Ishtar Gate by soldiers collecting souvenirs. I heard that the ruins of the Sumerian cities of Umma, Umm al-Akareb, Larsa and Tello were completely destroyed and were now landscapes of craters.

I heard that the US was planning an embassy in Baghdad that would cost $1.5 billion, as expensive as the Freedom Tower at Ground Zero, the proposed tallest building in the world.

I saw a headline in the Los Angeles Times that read: ëAfter Levelling City, US Tries to Build Trust.í

I heard that military personnel were now carrying ëtalking pointí cards with phrases such as: ëWe are a values-based, people-focused team that strives to uphold the dignity and respect of all.í

I heard that 47 per cent of Americans believed that Saddam Hussein helped plan 9/11 and 44 per cent believed that the hijackers were Iraqi; 61 per cent thought that Saddam had been a serious threat to the US and 76 per cent said the Iraqis were now better off.

I heard that Iraq was now ranked with Haiti and Senegal as one of the poorest nations on earth. I heard the United Nations Human Rights Commission report that acute malnutrition among Iraqi children had doubled since the war began. I heard that only 5 per cent of the money Congress had allocated for reconstruction had actually been spent. I heard that in Fallujah people were living in tents pitched on the ruins of their houses.

I heard that this yearís budget included $105 billion for the War on Terror, which would bring the total to $300 billion. I heard that Halliburton was estimating that its bill for providing services to US troops in Iraq would exceed $10 billion. I heard that the family of an American soldier killed in Iraq receives $12,000.

I heard that the White House had deleted the chapter on Iraq from the annual Economic Report of the President, on the grounds that it did not conform with an otherwise cheerful tone.

Within a week in January I heard Condoleezza Rice say there were 120,000 Iraqi troops trained to take over the security of the country; I heard Senator Joseph Biden, Democrat from Delaware, say that the number was closer to 4000; I heard Donald Rumsfeld say: ëThe fact of the matter is that there are 130,200 who have been trained and equipped. Thatís a fact. The idea that that numberís wrong is just not correct. The number is right.í

I heard him explain the discrepancy: ëNow, are some getting killed every day? Sure. Are some retiring at various times or injured? Yes, theyíre gone.í I remembered that a year before he had said the number was 210,000. I heard the Pentagon announce it would no longer release Iraqi troop figures.

I heard that 50,000 US soldiers in Iraq did not have body armour, because the armyís equipment manager had placed it at the same priority level as socks. I heard that soldiers were buying their own flak jackets with steel ëtraumaí plates, Camelbak water pouches, ballistic goggles, knee and elbow pads, drop pouches to hold ammunition magazines, and load-bearing vests. I heard they were rigging their vehicles with pieces of scrap metal as protection against roadside bombs, since the production of armoured Humvees had fallen more than a year behind schedule and the few available armoured vehicles were mainly reserved for officers and visiting dignitaries.

I heard that the private security firm Custer Battles had been paid $15 million to provide security for civilian flights at Baghdad airport at a time when no planes were flying. I heard that US forces were still unable to secure the two-mile highway from the airport to the Green Zone.

I heard that the Presidentís uncle, Bucky Bush, had made half a million dollars cashing in his stock options in Engineered Support Systems Inc, a defence contractor that had received $100 million for work in Iraq. Bucky Bush is on the board of directors. I heard Dan Kreher, vice-president of investor relations for ESSI, say: ëThe fact his nephew is in the White House has absolutely nothing to do with Mr Bush being on our board or with our stock having gone up 1000 per cent in the past five years.í

I heard that a Pentagon audit of only some of the Halliburton contracts had found $212 million in ëquestionable costsí. I heard that eight other government audits of Halliburton were marked ëclassifiedí and not released to the public.

I heard that African-Americans normally form 23 per cent of active-duty troops, but that recruitment of African-Americans had fallen by 41 per cent since 2000. I heard that a US Military Image Study prepared for the army had recommended that, ëfor the army to achieve its mission goals with Future Force Soldiers, it must overhaul its image as well as its product offering.í

I heard that the military was developing robot soldiers. I heard Gordon Johnson of the Joint Forces Command at the Pentagon say: ëThey donít get hungry. Theyíre not afraid. They donít forget their orders. They donít care if the guy next to them has just been shot.í I heard him say: ëI have been asked what happens if the robot destroys a school bus rather than a tank parked nearby. The lawyers tell me there are no prohibitions against robots making life-or-death decisions. We will not entrust a robot with that decision until we are confident they can make it.í

*

In March, on the second anniversary of the invasion, I heard that 1511 US soldiers had been killed and approximately 11,000 wounded. There was no way of knowing exactly how many Iraqis had died.

I heard Donald Rumsfeld say: ëWell, if you have a country of 25 million people and you have x thousands of criminals, terrorists, Baathists, former regime elements who want to blow up things and make bombs and kill people, they can still do that. That happens in most major cities in the world, most countries in the world, that people get killed and thereís violence.í

I heard that, along with banning photographs of the caskets of American soldiers, the administration was actively preventing photographs being taken of the wounded, who were flown in from Iraq late at night, transferred to military hospitals in unmarked vans, and unloaded at back entrances.

I heard about despair. I heard General John Abizaid, commander of US Central Command, say of the insurgents: ëI donít think that theyíre growing. I think that theyíre desperate.í

I heard about hope. I heard General Richard Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, say: ëI came away more positive than Iíve ever been. I think weíre getting some momentum built up.í

I heard about happiness. I heard Lieutenant General James Mattis say that ëitís a lot of fun to fightí in Iraq. I heard him say: ëYou know, itís a hell of a hoot. I like brawling.í

I heard that Donald Rumsfeld had created his own intelligence agency, the Strategic Support Branch, ëdesigned to operate without detection and under the defense secretaryís direct controlí, without the oversight laws that apply to the CIA, and that it was employing ënotorious figuresí whose ëlinks to the US government would be embarrassing if disclosedí. I heard about the practice of ëextraordinary renditioní, by which suspected terrorists are kidnapped and flown to countries known to torture prisoners, or to secret US prisons in Thailand, Afghanistan, Poland and Romania.

I heard that there were 3200 prisoners in Abu Ghraib, 700 more than its capacity. I heard Major General William Brandenburg, who oversees US military detention operations in Iraq, say: ëWeíve got a normal capacity and a surge capacity. Weíre operating at surge capacity.í A year before, I had heard the President promise ëto demolish the Abu Ghraib prison, as a fitting symbol of Iraqís new beginningí. I heard that outside the prison there is a sign that reads: ëNo Parking. Detainee Drop Off Zone.í

I heard that some American soldiers had made a heavy metal music video called ëRamadi Madnessí, with sections entitled ëThose Crafty Little Bastardsí and ëAnother Day, Another Mission, Another Scumbagí. In one scene, a soldier kicks the face of an Iraqi who is bound and lying on the ground, dying. In another, a soldier moves the arm of a man who has just been shot dead, to make it appear that he is waving. I heard a Pentagon spokesman say: ëClearly, the soldiers probably exercised poor judgment.í

I heard that the army released a 1200-page report detailing the torture of Iraqi prisoners at a single military intelligence base during a few months in 2003. In response to the report, I heard Lieutenant Colonel Jeremy Martin say: ëThe armyís a learning organisation. If we have some shortfalls, we try to correct them. Weíve learned how to do that process now.í

I heard a US soldier talk about his photographs of the 12 prisoners he had shot with a machine-gun: ëI shot this guy in the face. See, his head is split open. I shot this guy in the groin. He took three days to bleed to death.í I heard him say he was a devout Christian: ëWell, I knelt down. I said a prayer, stood up, and gunned them all down.í

*

In April I heard General Richard Myers say: ëI think weíre winning. OK? I think weíre definitely winning. I think weíve been winning for some time.í

I heard Major General William Webster, commander of the 3rd Infantry Division, say: ëWe think the insurgency is weakening over time. Some of these attacks appear to be very spectacular and well co-ordinated, but, in fact, are not.í

I heard Lieutenant General James Conroy of the marines say that American troop withdrawals would soon begin, because ëIraqis are starting to take care of their own situation.í I heard Rear Admiral William Sullivan report to Congress that there were 145,000 ëcombat-capableí Iraqi forces. I heard Sabah Hadum, a spokesman for the Iraqi Ministry of the Interior, say: ëWe are paying about 135,000, but that does not necessarily mean that 135,000 are actually working.í I heard that as many as 50,000 may be ëghost soldiersí ñ invented names whose pay is collected by officers or bureaucrats.

I heard Staff Sergeant Craig Patrick, who was training Iraqi troops, say: ëItís all about perception, to convince the American public that everything is going as planned and weíre right on schedule to be out of here. I mean, they can bullshit the American people, but they canít bullshit us.í

As many countries pulled their small numbers of troops out of Iraq, I heard the State Department announce it would no longer use the phrase ëCoalition of the Willingí.

I heard that of the 40 water and sewage systems in Iraq, ënot one is being operated properly.í I heard that of the 19 power plants that had been rebuilt by the US, none works correctly. I heard a US official blame this on the ëindifferent work ethicí of Iraqis.

I read, in the New York Times, that thanks to the ësustained momentumí of the ëmilitary operationí, the ëadministrationís goal of turning Iraq over to a permanent, elected Iraqi governmentí was ëwithin striking distanceí. I heard General Richard Myers say: ëWeíre on track.í And I heard Major General Adnan Thabit say: ëWe are gaining more victories because people are now co-operating more with us.í

I heard General John Abizaid predict that Iraqi security forces would be leading the fight against the insurgents in most of the country by the end of 2005. I heard General George Casey, commander of the Multinational Forces in Iraq, say: ëWe should be able to take some fairly substantial reductions in the size of our forces.í

I heard that the insurgents had been driven out of the cities and into the desert and that they were having trouble finding new recruits. I heard Lieutenant General Raymond Odierno say: ëTheyíre slowly losing.í

I heard Donald Rumsfeld say: ëWe donít have an exit strategy, we have a victory strategy.í

*

A few weeks later, I heard Lawrence di Rita, a Pentagon spokesman, admit that ëthereís been an uptickí in violence. I heard Pentagon officials dismiss this as ëdesperate attacks by desperate individualsí, but I heard General Richard Myers now say about the insurgents: ëI think their capacity stays about the same. And where they are right now is where they were almost a year ago.í

I heard that a report by the CIA National Intelligence Council had stated that ëIraq has now replaced Afghanistan as the training ground for the next generation of ìprofessionalisedî terrorists,í providing ëa recruitment ground and the opportunity for enhancing technical skillsí. I heard that it said that Iraq was a more effective training ground than Afghanistan, because ëthe urban nature of the war in Iraq was helping combatants learn how to carry out assassinations, kidnappings, car bombings and other kinds of attacks that were never a staple of the fighting in Afghanistan during the anti-Soviet campaigns of the 1980s.í

I heard that the State Department refused to release its annual report on terrorism, which would have shown that the number of ësignificantí attacks outside Iraq had grown from 175 in 2003 to 655 in 2004. I heard Karen Aguilar, acting co-ordinator for counterterrorism at the State Department, explain that ëstatistics are not relevantí to ëtrends in global terrorismí.

I heard Donald Rumsfeld say: ëGoodness knows, it doesnít take a genius to blow up a building.í

I heard that in the month of April there were 67 suicide bombings. I heard Colonel Pat Lang, former chief of Mideast operations at the Defense Intelligence Agency, say: ëItís just political rhetoric to say we are not in a civil war. Weíve been in a civil war for a long time.í

I heard that 1600 US soldiers were dead. I heard that every week more than 200 Iraqis were dying in the suicide bombings.

I heard Condoleezza Rice, on a surprise visit to Iraq, say: ëWe are so grateful that there are Americans willing to sacrifice so the Middle East will be whole and free and democratic and at peace.í On that same day, the bodies of 34 recently killed men were found in a mass grave; a high official in the Ministry of Industry was shot dead; a leading Shia cleric was shot dead; and the governor of Diyala province survived a suicide bombing, though four others in his entourage did not and 37 nearby were wounded.

I heard Donald Rumsfeld, asked whether we were winning or losing the war in Iraq, reply: ëWinning or losing is not the issue for ìweî, in my view, in the traditional, conventional context of using the words ìwinningî and ìlosingî in a war.í

I heard a truck driver named Muhammad say, ëWith my own eyes Iíve seen the Americans, when their patrol was hit by a roadside bomb, open fire on all the civilian cars around them,í and another driver, from Fallujah, say: ëIf Bush is a real man, he should walk down the street alone!í

I heard that the Iraqi president, Jalal Talabani, has 3000 Kurdish peshmerga soldiers stationed around his house.

I heard the President proclaim a ëcritical victory in the War on Terrorí with the capture of Abu Faraj al-Libbi, whom the President said was a ëtop generalí and the number three man in al-Qaida. I heard him say: ëHis arrest removes a dangerous enemy who was a direct threat to America and for those who love freedom.í A few days later, I heard that the man had probably been confused with someone else with a vaguely similar name. I heard that a former associate of Osama bin Laden in London had laughed and said: ëWhat I remember of him is that he used to make the coffee and do the photocopying.í I never heard this reported in the American press.

At the dedication of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, I heard the President compare his War on Terror with Lincolnís war against slavery.

I heard the President say that Iraqi forces now outnumber their American counterparts.

*

In May I heard that there were three suicide bombings every day.

I heard a journalist ask the President: ëDo you think that the insurgency is getting harder now to defeat militarily?í And I heard the President reply: ëNo, I donít think so. I think theyíre being defeated. And thatís why they continue to fight.í

I heard a human rights worker say: ëIn Baghdad today, four clerics (three Sunni and one Shia) were assassinated. The bodies of two other Sunni clerics who had been abducted last week were found. A suicide car bomber detonated his vehicle in the Abu Cher market killing nine Iraqi National Guard troops and injuring 28 civilians. Two engineering students were killed when a bomb (or rocket) struck their classroom at a local school. The dean of a high school in the Shaab neighborhood was assassinated. One judge, two officials from the Ministry of Defence and one official investigating corruption in the previous interim government were assassinated. In all, 31 dead, 42 injured and 17 abducted. Rumours abound in Baghdad about who is responsible for all the attacks but no one has claimed responsibility. And yet compared to some days in recent weeks here in Baghdad the number of dead and injured was fewer. So comparatively speaking it was a fairly quiet day here in Baghdad.í

I heard Donald Rumsfeld say: ëWe donít do body counts.í But then I heard the Pentagon releasing body counts. It said 1600 insurgents had been killed last year in Fallujah, but then I heard that the marines had discovered ëfew bodiesí after the city was captured, and months later a ëmartyrsí cemeteryí was found to contain only 79 graves. I heard that the army had completely destroyed a ëguerrilla training campí near Lake Tharthar, killing all 85 insurgents, and I heard the television news report that this was ëthe single biggest one-day death toll for militants in months, and the latest in a series of blows to the insurgencyí. But then I heard that some European journalists visited the camp the next day and the insurgents were still there. Then I heard US officials claim that the insurgents must have dragged away their own dead. But then I heard a reporter ask how all 85 dead insurgents could have dragged themselves away. And I heard Major Richard Goldenberg reply: ëWe could spend years going back and forth on body counts. The important thing is the effect this has on the organised insurgency.í

I heard about despair. I heard Colonel Joseph DiSalvo, commander of the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, say: ëWhat weíre seeing is the terrorists are in desperation.í I heard him say: ëBy the end of the summer, the terrorists will be captured, dead or, in the least, severely disrupted.í

I heard Dick Cheney say: ëThe level of activity that we see today, from a military standpoint, I think, will clearly decline. I think theyíre in the last throes, if you will, of the insurgency.í

I heard Porter J. Goss, director of the CIA, say that the insurgents were ënot quite in the last throes, but I think they are very close to it.í

I heard Dick Cheney later explain: ëIf you look at what the dictionary says about throes, it can still be a violent period. When you look back at World War Two, the toughest battle, both in Europe and in the Pacific, occurred just a few months before the end. And I see this as a similar situation, where theyíre going to go all out.í

I heard Donald Rumsfeld say: ëLast throes could be a violent last throe, or a placid and calm last throe. Look it up in the dictionary.í

*

I heard Senator Chuck Hagel, Republican from Nebraska, say: ëThings arenít getting better; theyíre getting worse. The White House is completely disconnected from reality. Itís like theyíre just making it up as they go along. The reality is that weíre losing in Iraq.í

I heard Lieutenant Colonel Frederick Wellman say of the insurgents: ëWe canít kill them all. When I kill one, I create three.í

I heard that Congressman Walter Jones, Republican from North Carolina and the man who renamed French fries ëfreedom friesí, was now calling for the withdrawal of US troops. I heard him say: ëThe American people are getting to a point here: how much more can we take?í I heard Congressman Mike Pence, Republican from Indiana, explain why he is opposed to a timetable for withdrawal: ëI never tell my kids when my patience is going to run out, because theyíll usually try it.í

I heard Condoleezza Rice speak about a ëgenerational commitmentí in Iraq.

I heard the President say: ëWe have put the enemy on the run, and now they spend their days avoiding capture, because they know Americaís armed services are on their trail.í

I heard him tell the American people: ëAs we work to deliver opportunity at home, weíre also keeping you safe from threats from abroad. We went to war because we were attacked, and we are at war today because there are still people out there who want to harm our country and hurt our citizens. Our troops are fighting these terrorists in Iraq so you will not have to face them here at home.í

I heard the President say: ëSee, in my line of work you got to keep repeating things over and over and over again for the truth to sink in, to kind of catapult the propaganda.í

*

I heard that US troops had killed the number two man in al-Qaida in Iraq. I heard that US troops had killed another man who was the number two in al-Qaida in Iraq. I heard that US troops had killed yet another man who was the number two in al-Qaida in Iraq.

I heard that in Baghdad 92 per cent of the people did not have stable electricity, 33 per cent did not have safe drinking water, and 25 per cent of children under the age of five were suffering from malnutrition. I heard that there were two or three car bombings a day, on some days killing a hundred people and wounding many hundreds more.

I heard General William Webster say: ëCertainly saying anything about ìbreaking the backî or ìabout to reach the end of the lineî or those kinds of things do not apply to the insurgency at this point.í

I heard a ëhigh-ranking army officerí say: ëThereís simply not enough forces here. There are not enough to do anything right; everybodyís got their finger in the dyke.í I heard that the soldiers of Marine Company E had set up cardboard dummies of themselves to make it appear that they had more men in battle.

I heard the President say: ëIíd say I spend most of my time worrying about right now people losing their life in Iraq. Both Americans and Iraqis. I worry about my girls. I used to worry about my wife, until she hit an 85 per cent popularity figure. Now sheís worried about me. You know, I donít worry all that much, other than what I just described to you. I attribute that to ñ Iíve got peace of mind. A lot of it has to do with my particular faith, and a lot of that has to do with the fact that a lot of people pray for me and Laura. Iím sleeping pretty good. Seriously. I get asked that. Thereís times when I hadnít been. Iíve got peace of mind.í

*

In 2005 I heard about 2001. I heard that on 21 September 2001, the PDB (Presidentís Daily Brief), prepared by the CIA, reported that there was no evidence that Saddam Hussein was connected to the September 11 attacks.

I heard Condoleezza Rice say: ëThe fact of the matter is that when we were attacked on September 11, we had a choice to make. We could decide that the proximate cause was al-Qaida and the people who flew those planes into buildings and, therefore, we would go after al-Qaida. Or we could take a bolder approach.í

I heard Karl Rove say: ëConservatives saw the savagery of 9/11 and the attacks and prepared for war. Liberals saw the savagery of the 9/11 attacks and wanted to prepare indictments and offer therapy and understanding for our attackers. Conservatives saw what happened to us on 9/11 and said we will defeat our enemies. Liberals saw what happened to us and said we must understand our enemies.í

In 2005 I heard about 2002. I heard that on 23 July 2002, eight months before the invasion, Sir Richard Dearlove, the head of MI6, reported in a secret memo to Tony Blair that he was told in Washington that the US was going to ëremove Saddam, through military action, justified by the conjunction of terrorism and WMDí. However, because ëthe case was thin, Saddam was not threatening his neighbours, and his WMD capability was less than that of Libya, North Korea or Iran . . . the intelligence and facts were being fixed around the policy.í

I heard that this ëDowning Street Memoí was a scandal in the British press, but I didnít hear it mentioned on American network television for two months. During those two months, ABC news had 121 stories on Michael Jackson and 42 stories on Natalee Holloway, a high-school student who disappeared from a bar while on holiday in Aruba. CBS news had 235 stories about Michael Jackson and 70 about Natalee Holloway.

I heard that in the second half of 2002, the US air force and the RAF dropped twice as many bombs on Iraq as they had done in all of 2001. I heard that the objective was to provoke Saddam into giving the allies an excuse for war.

I heard that the primary source of information about Saddamís mobile biological weapons labs and germ warfare capability, used by Colin Powell in his presentation at the United Nations and in the Presidentís 2003 State of the Union address, was an Iraqi defector held by German intelligence. The Germans had repeatedly told the Americans that none of the information supplied by this defector, an advanced alcoholic, was reliable. He had been given the code-name Curveball.

I heard that the primary source of information about the tons of biological, chemical and nuclear weapons buried under Saddamís private villas and under Saddam Hussein Hospital in Baghdad and throughout Iraq was a Kurdish exile called Adnan Ihsan Saeed al-Haideri. He was sponsored by the Rendon Group, a Washington public relations firm that had been paid hundreds of millions of dollars by the Pentagon to promote the war. (Rendon, among other things, had organised a group of Iraqi exiles in London, called them the Iraqi National Congress, and installed Ahmad Chalabi as their leader.) I heard that after al-Haideri failed a lie-detector test, administered by the CIA in Thailand, his stories were nevertheless leaked to journalists, most prominently Judith Miller of the New York Times, which published them on the front page.

I heard Donald Rumsfeld say: ëWell, you never know whatís going to happen. I presented the President a list of about fifteen things that could go terribly, terribly wrong before the war started. And the fact that the oilfields could have been set aflame like they were in Kuwait, the fact that we could have had mass refugees and dislocations and it didnít happen. The bridges could have been blown up. There could have been a fortress Baghdad with a moat around it with oil in it and people fighting to the death. So a great many of the bad things that could have happened did not happen.í I heard a journalist ask him: ëWas a robust insurgency on your list that you gave the President?í And I heard Rumsfeld reply: ëI donít remember whether that was on there.í

In 2005 I heard about 2003. I heard a US marine, who was a witness to the event, say that the story of the capture of Saddam Hussein was a fiction. Saddam had been caught the day before in a small house, and then placed in an abandoned well, which was invented as the ëspider holeí where he was hiding. I never heard about this marine again.

In 2005 I heard about 2004. I heard that, during the attack on Fallujah, the President had suggested to Tony Blair that the headquarters of the al-Jazeera network in Qatar should be bombed. I heard that Blair persuaded him that it wasnít such a good idea.

*

Because it was difficult for the military to attract new recruits, I heard that an army directive recommended ëalleviating the personnel crunch by retaining soldiers who are earmarked for early discharge during their first term of enlistment because of alcohol or drug abuse, unsatisfactory performance, or being overweight, among other reasonsí. I heard that the Pentagon had asked Congress to raise the maximum age for military recruits from 35 to 42.

I heard that the US military was actively recruiting in Latin America, offering citizenship in exchange for service. I heard that Hispanic-Americans make up 9.5 per cent of the actively enlisted, but 17.5 per cent of those given the most dangerous assignments.

I heard that the government had offered $15,000 cash bonuses to National Guard personnel who agreed to extend their enlistment. I heard that the government never paid, and cancelled the offer after many had signed up.

I heard that in veteransí hospitals, the only televison news that is permitted is the Pentagon Channel, a 24-hour news station that features programmes like Freedom Journal Iraq.

I heard Rory Mayberry, a former food manager for Halliburton in Iraq, say that they routinely served the troops food that had expired by as much as a year. I heard that they would salvage food from convoys that had been attacked. I heard him say: ëWe were told to go into the trucks and remove the food items and use them after removing the bullets and any shrapnel from the bad food that was hit.í

I heard that, in a poll of American soldiers in Iraq, more than half rated their unitís morale as ëlowí or ëvery lowí.

I heard the Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine say that one in four veterans required medical treatment and that it expected that as many as 240,000 would suffer from some form of post- traumatic stress disorder. I heard a soldier say: ëMy nightmares are so intense I woke up one night with my hands around my fiancÈeís throat.í

I heard that members of the Westboro Baptist Church of Topeka, Kansas were demonstrating at the funerals of soldiers who had died in Iraq, claiming that the war was divine retribution for American immorality. I heard that they held signs depicting ëhomosexual actsí, with the words ëGod Hates Fagsí; ëGod Hates Americaí; ëThank God for IEDs [roadside bombs]í; ëFag Soldiers in Hellí; ëGod Blew Up the Troopsí; and ëFags Doom Nations.í

I heard that headstones in Arlington National Cemetery were now being inscribed with the slogans ëOperation Enduring Freedomí and ëOperation Iraqi Freedomí along with the traditional name, rank and date of death of the deceased soldier. I heard Jeff Martell, who makes headstones for the cemetery, say: ëIt just seems a little brazen that thatís put on stones. It seems like it might be connected to politics.í

*

On the first anniversary of the ëtransfer of sovereigntyí, I heard that there had been 484 car bombs in the last year, killing at least 2221 people and wounding at least 5574. I heard 890 US soldiers had been killed in the last year and that there was now an average of 70 insurgent attacks a day. That same day I heard the President say: ëWe fight today because terrorists want to attack our country and kill our citizens, and Iraq is where they are making their stand. So weíll fight them there, weíll fight them across the world, and we will stay in the fight until the fight is won.í

I heard him say: ëIraq is the latest battlefield in this war. Many terrorists who kill innocent men, women and children on the streets of Baghdad are followers of the same murderous ideology that took the lives of our citizens in New York, in Washington and Pennsylvania.í

I heard him say: ëSome may disagree with my decision to remove Saddam Hussein from power, but all of us can agree that the worldís terrorists have now made Iraq a central front in the War on Terror.í

And I remembered that, three years before, to justify the invasion, he had said: ëImagine a terrorist network with Iraq as an arsenal and as a training ground.í

*

I heard Tom DeLay, then still the House majority leader, say: ëYou know, if Houston, Texas was held to the same standard as Iraq is held to, nobodyíd go to Houston, because all this reporting coming out of the local press in Houston is violence, murders, robberies, deaths on the highways.í

I heard Donald Rumsfeld say that the Shias ëare reaching out to the Sunnis and allowing them to come into the constitutional drafting process in a very constructive and healthy way. So thereís an awful lot good thatís happening in that country.í

I heard Scott McClellan, the White House press secretary, say: ëI think we have a clear strategy for success, and there is great progress being made on the ground. We are succeeding and we will succeed.í

I heard the President say: ëWe have a clear path forward.í

I heard that Halliburton had built a wall around the Green Zone, made of 12-foot-high, five-ton concrete slabs, topped with concertina wire. I heard that mortars fired into the Green Zone often fell short and landed in the neighbourhoods just outside the wall, and that frustrated suicide bombers, unable to get into the Green Zone, would blow themselves up outside the wall. I heard Saman Abdel Aziz Rahman, the owner of the Serawan Kebab Restaurant, which is next door to a restaurant where a suicide bomber at lunchtime had killed 23 people, say: ëWe are the new Palestine.í I heard Haider al-Shawaf, who lives on al-Shawaf Street, now bisected by the wall, say twice, in English: ëIt was very nice street. It was very nice street.í

I heard the President say: ëAmerica will not leave before the job is done.í I heard Dick Cheney predict that the fighting would be over by the time the administration ends in 2009.

*

After Amnesty International compared American treatment of Afghan and Iraqi prisoners to the Gulag, I heard the President say: ëItís an absurd allegation. The United States is a country that promotes freedom around the world. It seemed like to me they based some of their decisions on the word of, and the allegations by, people who were held in detention, people who hate America, people that had been trained in some instances to disassemble ñ that means not tell the truth.í

I heard that most of the insurgent violence in Iraq was personally directed by a Jordanian, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. I heard that rumours of his presence had led to the US bombings of Fallujah, Ramadi, Mosul, Samarra, and a village in Kurdistan, but each time he had narrowly escaped. I heard that he had been seen recently in Jordan, Syria, Iran and Pakistan. I heard that he was closely linked with Osama bin Laden, Saddam Hussein and the government of Syria. I heard that he was the bitter enemy of bin Laden, the secularist Saddam and the secularist Syrian government. I heard that he had died in Afghanistan. I heard that, after an injury in Afghanistan, his leg had been amputated in a hospital in Iraq, which was proof of Saddamís connections to terrorism. I heard he was still walking on two legs. I heard he was one of the hooded men in a video showing the decapitation of a young American, Nick Berg, although the men never removed their hoods. I heard that he had died recently in Mosul when eight men blew themselves up rather than surrender to the US forces who had surrounded their house. I heard Sheikh Jawad al-Kalesi, an important Shia cleric in Baghdad, say that Zarqawi had been killed long ago, but the US was using him as a ëployí. I heard the President compare him to Hitler, Stalin and Pol Pot. I heard that he had fewer than a hundred followers in Iraq.

I heard that there could be as many as a hundred groups responsible for the suicide bombings and I heard that many of them were connected to Ansar al-Islam, which had many more followers in Iraq than Zarqawi and had actual ties to Osama bin Laden before the war. Ansar al-Islam was almost never mentioned in administration speeches or in the press, since it is a Kurdish group, and all Kurds are presumed to be allies of the US.

I heard that unemployment for young men in Sunni areas was now 40 per cent. I heard that the annual per capita income was $77, half of what it was the year before; and that only 37 per cent of families had homes connected to a sewage system, half of what it was before the war.

I heard General George Casey say: ëIraq slowly gets better every day.í I heard Lieutenant Colonel Vincent Quarles, commander of the 4-3 Brigade Troops Battalion, say: ëItís hard to see all the progress that has been made. But things are getting better.í

I heard that the Pentagon was supposed to deliver a report to Congress on the training and capability of the Iraqi security forces, but that it had missed the deadline and was reluctant to release the report. I heard Donald Rumsfeld say: ëItís not for us to tell the other side, the enemy, the terrorists, that this Iraqi unit has this capability, and that Iraqi unit has this capability. The idea of discussing weaknesses, if you will, strengths and weaknesses ñ ìthis unit has a poor chain of command,î or ìthese forces are not as effective because their moraleís down.î I mean, it would be mindless to put that kind of information out.í

I heard General William Webster say that the insurgentsí ability ëto conduct sustained, high-intensity operations, as they did last year ñ weíve mostly eliminated that.í In the next few days, I heard that suicide bombings in Baghdad had increased, including one at a school that killed some two dozen children, and the explosion in the central square of a stolen truck of liquefied gas, killing at least 71 people and wounding 156 others. I heard that the highest-ranking diplomat from Algeria had been kidnapped. I heard that the highest-ranking diplomat from Egypt had been kidnapped and killed. I heard that no Arab country would send an ambassador.

I heard an unnamed ësenior army intelligence officerí say: ëWe are capturing or killing a lot of insurgents, but theyíre being replaced quicker than we can interdict their operations. There is always another insurgent ready to step up and take charge.í I heard him say that the US military was having a hard time understanding the insurgencyís unlikely coalitions of secular Baath Party members and Islamic militants.

I heard that, after a car bomb killed several children, the Task Force Baghdad 3rd Infantry Division released a statement quoting an ëIraqi man who preferred not to be identifiedí: ëThey are enemies of humanity without religion or any sort of ethics. They have attacked my community today and I will now take the fight to the terrorists.í A few weeks later, after a car bomb killed 25 people near the al-Rashad police station, I heard that the Task Force Baghdad 3rd Infantry Division released a statement quoting an ëIraqi man who preferred not to be identifiedí: ëThey are enemies of humanity without religion or any sort of ethics. They have attacked my community today and I will now take the fight to the terrorists.í

I heard that the administration had decided it would no longer refer to a War on Terror. The new name was the Global Struggle against Violent Extremism.

I heard General Richard Myers say: ëIíve objected to the use of the term ìWar on Terrorismî before, because if you call it a war, then you think of people in uniform as being the solution. And itís more than terrorism. The long-term problem is as much diplomatic, as much economic ñ in fact, more diplomatic, more economic, more political than it is military.í

I heard that the administration had decided it would no longer refer to the Global Struggle against Violent Extremism, which was too long. The new name was now the old War on Terror.

I heard the President say: ëMake no mistake about it, weíre at war. Weíre at war with an enemy that attacked us on September the 11th, 2001. Weíre at war against an enemy that, since that day, has continued to kill.í

I heard Abdul Henderson, a former marine corporal, say: ëWe were firing into small towns. You see people just running, cars going, guys falling off bikes. It was just sad. You just sit there and look through your binos and see things blowing up, and you think, man they have no water, living in the third world, and weíre just bombing them to hell. Blowing up buildings, shrapnel tearing people to shreds.í

*

I heard a ëformer high-level intelligence officialí say: ëThis is a war against terrorism, and Iraq is just one campaign. The Bush administration is looking at this as a huge war zone. Next weíre going to have the Iranian campaign.í I heard Condoleezza Rice say that an invasion of Iran ëis not on the menu at this timeí.

I heard that John Bolton, the new US ambassador to the United Nations, had said: ëThere is no such thing as the United Nations. There is an international community that occasionally can be led by the only real power in the world ñ and that is the United States ñ when it suits our interest and when we can get others to go along.í I heard that he keeps a bronze hand grenade on his desk.

I heard the President say: ëThis notion that the United States is getting ready to attack Iran is simply ridiculous. Having said that, all options are on the table.í I heard the White House press secretary, Scott McClellan, say: ëThe President makes decisions based on what is right for the American people.í

I heard about despair. I heard the President say: ëAs democracy in Iraq takes root, the enemies of freedom, the terrorists, will become more desperate.í I heard about hope. I heard him say: ëThese terrorists and insurgents will fail. We have a strategy for success in Iraq. As Iraqis stand up, Americans and Coalition forces will stand down.í

I heard an unnamed ëtop US commanderí question how the current Iraqi Ministry of Defence, largely staffed by civilians appointed by the US, would be capable of maintaining an army: ëWhat is lacking are the systems that pay people, that supply people, that recruit people, that replace the wounded and AWOL, and systems that promote people and provide spare parts.í I heard that the ministry had deposited $759 million in the personal bank account of a former money trader.

*

I heard a White House spokesman, Trent Duffy, say: ëThe President knows one of his most important responsibilities is to comfort the families of the fallen.í I heard Cindy Sheehan, whose son Casey had been killed in Iraq, describe her meeting with the President.

I heard her say: ëHe first got there, he walked in and said: ìSo who are we honouring here?î He didnít even know Caseyís name, he didnít, nobody could have whispered to him: ìMr President, this is the Sheehan family, their son Casey was killed in Iraq.î We thought that was pretty disrespectful to not even know Caseyís name, and to walk in and say: ìSo who are we honouriní here?î Like: ìLetís get on with it, letís get somebody honoured here.î So anyway, he went up to my oldest daughter, I keep calling her my oldest daughter but sheís actually my oldest child now, and he said: ìSo who are you to the loved one?î And Carly goes: ìCasey was my brother.î And George Bush says: ìI wish I could bring your loved one back, to fill the hole in your heart.î And Carly said: ìYeah, so do we.î And Bush said: ìIím sure you do.î And he gave her a dirty look and turned away from her.í

As the President moved to his ranch for a six-week summer vacation, Cindy Sheehan camped out at the entrance, demanding another meeting, which the President refused. I heard him say: ëI think itís important for me to be thoughtful and sensitive to those who have got something to say. But I think itís also important for me to go on with my life, to keep a balanced life. I think the people want the President to be in a position to make good, crisp decisions and to stay healthy. And part of my being is to be outside exercising.í

I heard that privately he had said: ëIím not meeting again with that goddamned bitch. She can go to hell as far as Iím concerned.í

*

I heard that 82 per cent of Iraqis were ëstrongly opposedí to the presence of foreign troops and 45 per cent supported armed attacks against them. Less than 1 per cent believed that the foreign troops had made the country more secure.

I heard ëtop military commandersí say that we could expect ësome fairly substantial reductionsí in troops by next spring. I heard them add that the reduction would come after ëa short-term bulge in troop levelsí.

I heard that 1100 bodies were brought to the Baghdad morgue in one month, many with hands bound and a bullet in the head. I heard that between 10 and 20 per cent were too disfigured to be identified. I heard that in the Saddam era the number was normally around 200. I heard that doctors were ordered not to perform post-mortems on bodies brought in by US troops.

On a single day, I heard that fighting had broken out between two Shia militias in Najaf, leaving 19 dead; that the bodies of 37 Shia soldiers, each killed with a single bullet to the head, had been found in a river south of Baghdad; that Jalal Talabani had escaped an assassination attempt in which eight of his bodyguards were killed and 15 injured. On that same day, I heard an ëunnamed White House officialí say that the Iraqis were ëmaking substantial and real progressí.

I heard Condoleezza Rice say: ëItís a lot easier to see the violence and suicide bombing than to see the rather quiet political progress thatís going on in parallel.í I heard her say that the insurgency was ëlosing steamí.

As riots broke out in Baghdad over the lack of electricity, I heard Nadeem Haki, a shop-owner in Baghdad, say: ëWe thank God that the air we breathe is not in the hands of the government. Otherwise they would have cut it off for a few hours each day.í

I heard General Barry McCaffrey say, after returning from an inspection of Iraq: ëThis thing, the wheels are coming off of it.í

*

I heard that the Presidentís approval rating had fallen to 36 per cent, lower than Nixonís during the summer of Watergate. I heard that 50 per cent now believed that sending troops to Iraq was a mistake. I heard Trent Duffy say that the President ëbelieves that those who want the US to begin to change course in Iraq do not want America to win the overall War on Terror. He can understand that people donít share his view that we must win the War on Terror ñ but he just has a different view.í I heard that the President, at a strategy meeting, had said: ëWho gives a flying fuck what the polls say? Iím the President and Iíll do whatever I goddamn please. They donít know shit.í

I heard Donald Rumsfeld say: ëItís been alleged that weíre not winning. Throughout history there have always been those who predict Americaís failure just around every corner. At the height of World War Two, many Western intellectuals praised Stalin. For a time, Communism was very much in vogue. Those being tossed about by the winds of concern should recall that Americans are a tough lot and will see their commitments through.í

I heard General Douglas Lute, director of operations at US Central Command, say that the US would withdraw a significant number of troops within a year. I heard him say: ëWe believe at some point, in order to break this dependence on the Coalition, you simply have to back off and let the Iraqis step forward.í The day before, I heard the President say that withdrawal would ëonly embolden the terrorists and create a staging ground to launch more attacks against America and free countries. So long as Iím the President, we will stay, we will fight, and we will win the War on Terror.í

I heard the President, still on vacation at his ranch, say: ëA time of war is a time of sacrifice.í I heard a reporter ask him if he planned to do any fishing, and I heard the President reply: ëI donít know yet. I havenít made up my mind yet. Iím kind of hanging loose, as they say.í

I heard that the US was now spending $195 million a day on the war and that the cost had already exceeded, by $50 billion, US expenses in all of World War One. I heard that $195 million would provide 12 meals a day for every starving child on earth.

*

I heard the President, at North Island Naval Air Station in San Diego, compare the War on Terror to World War Two. I heard him quote the words of Captain Randy Stone, a marine in Iraq: ëI know we will win because I see it in the eyes of the marines every morning. In their eyes is the sparkle of victory.í In a long speech, I heard him briefly mention Hurricane Katrina, which had struck a few days before and which, at the time, was believed to have killed tens of thousands. I heard him say: ëI urge everyone in the affected areas to continue to follow instructions from state and local authorities.í

I heard that the emergency response to the hurricane had been hampered because 35 per cent of the Louisiana National Guard and 40 per cent of the Mississippi National Guard, as well as much of their equipment and vehicles, were in Iraq. Approximately 5000 Guards and troops were eventually deployed; in 1992, following Hurricane Andrew in Florida, George Bush Sr had sent in 36,000 troops. I heard that the Guardsmen in Iraq were denied emergency two-week leave to help or find their families. I heard they were told by their commanders that there were too few US troops in Iraq to spare them.

A few weeks after the hurricane, I heard the President say: ëYou know, something we ñ Iíve been thinking a lot about how America has responded, and itís clear to me that Americans value human life, and value every person as important. And that stands in stark contrast, by the way, to the terrorists we have to deal with. You see, we look at the destruction caused by Katrina, and our hearts break. Theyíre the kind of people who look at Katrina and wish they had caused it. Weíre in a war against these people. Itís a War on Terror.í

*

On the day after an estimated 200,000 people demonstrated against the war in Washington, a pro-war rally was held on the Mall. I heard Senator Jeff Sessions, Republican from Alabama, address the crowd: ëThe group who spoke here the other day did not represent the American ideals of freedom, liberty and spreading that around the world. I frankly donít know what they represent.í The crowd was estimated at 400.

I heard that, along with the $30 billion appropriated by Congress, the US Agency for International Development was also seeking private donations: ëNow you can donate high-impact development assistance that directly improves the lives of thousands of Iraqis.í I heard that USAIDís ëextraordinary appealí had raised $600, but I heard Heather Layman, spokeswoman for USAID, say that she was not disappointed: ëEvery little bit helps.í

In 2003, Dick Cheney had said: ëSince I left Halliburton to become George Bushís vice-president, Iíve severed all my ties with the company, gotten rid of all my financial interest. I have no financial interest in Halliburton of any kind and havenít had, now, for over three years.í I heard that he was still receiving deferred compensation and owned more than 433,000 stock options. Those options were worth $241,498 in 2004. In 2005 they were worth more than $8 million. Along with its $10 billion no-bid contracts in Iraq, Halliburton was hired to expand the prison at Guantanamo and was among the first to receive a no-bid contract for Hurricane Katrina relief.

I heard the President say: ëAt this moment, more than a dozen Iraqi battalions have completed training and are conducting anti-terrorist operations in Ramadi and Fallujah. More than 20 battalions are operating in Baghdad. And some have taken the lead in operations in major sectors of the city. In total, more than 100 battalions are operating throughout Iraq. Our commanders report that the Iraqi forces are operating with increasing effectiveness.í

An Iraqi battalion has about 700 soldiers. The next day I heard General George Casey tell Congress that the number of ëcombat readyí Iraqi battalions had dropped from three to one. I heard him say: ëIraqi armed forces will not have an independent capability for some time.í When asked when the American people can expect troops to be withdrawn from Iraq, I heard him reply: ëI donít want to get into a date. I wouldnít even want to go there, wouldnít even want to go there.í

I heard Colonel Stephen Davis, commander of Marine Regimental Combat Team 2, tell a group of Iraqis that the US was not leaving: ëWeíre not going anywhere. Some of you are concerned about the attack helicopters and mortar fire from the base. I will tell you this: those are the sounds of peace.í

I heard General George Casey say that the insurgency ëis failing. We are more relentless in our progress than those who seek to disrupt it.í

I heard General John Abizaid say: ëThe insurgency doesnít have a chance for victory.í

I heard Condoleezza Rice say: ëWe have made significant progress.í

I heard Major General Rick Lynch, the chief military spokesman in Iraq, say: ëZarqawi is on the ropes.í

As the administration celebrated the approval of the long-delayed constitution, I heard Safia Taleb al-Suhail ñ the daughter of a man who was executed by Saddam Hussein and who, in a staged moment during the State of the Union address, embraced the mother of an American soldier killed in Iraq ñ say: ëWhen we came back from exile, we thought we were going to improve rights and the position of women. But look what has happened ñ we have lost all the gains we made over the last 30 years. Itís a big disappointment.í

I heard an Iraqi Shia sergeant say: ëJust let us have our constitution and elections in December and then we will do what Saddam did ñ start with five people from each neighbourhood and kill them in the streets and then go from there.í

*

I heard Melvin Laird, secretary of defense under Nixon during the Vietnam War, call for the withdrawal of troops. I heard him say of the President: ëWhen troops are dying, the commander in chief cannot be coy, vague or secretive. His West Texas cowboy approach ñ shoot first and answer questions later, or do the job first and let the results speak for themselves ñ is not working.í

I heard Brent Scowcroft, the national security adviser and a close friend of Bush Sr, say: ëI thought we ought to make it our duty to help make the world friendlier for the growth of liberal regimes. You encourage democracy over time, with assistance and aid, the traditional way. Not how the neo-cons do it.í They ëbelieve in the export of democracy, by violence if that is required. How do the neo-cons bring democracy to Iraq? You invade, you threaten and pressure, you evangelise.í I heard him say that America is now ësuffering from the consequences of this brand of revolutionary utopianismí.

I heard Colonel Lawrence Wilkerson, Colin Powellís chief of staff at the State Department, say that foreign policy had been ëhijackedí by the ëCheney-Rumsfeld cabalí. I heard him say that Rumsfeld was ëgiven carte blanche to tell the State Department to go screw itself in a closet somewhereí. I heard him say: ëIf something comes along that is truly serious, something like a nuclear weapon going off in a major American city, or something like a major pandemic, you are going to see the ineptitude of this government in a way that will take you back to the Declaration of Independence.í

*

I heard that 2000 US soldiers had been killed in Iraq; that 15,220 had been wounded in combat, including more than 7100 who were ëinjured too badly to return to dutyí; and that thousands more had been ëhurt in incidents unrelated to combatí.

I heard that a spokesman for the US military in Iraq, Lieutenant Colonel Steve Boylan, had sent an email to journalists asking them to downplay the marker of 2000 dead: ëWhen you report on the events, take a moment to think about the effects on the families and those serving in Iraq. The 2000 service members killed in Iraq supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom is not a milestone. It is an artificial mark on the wall set by individuals or groups with specific agendas and ulterior motives.í

I heard that 65 per cent of Americans now believed that the Iraq war was based on falsified information; only 42 per cent considered the President ëhonest and ethicalí and only 29 per cent considered Dick Cheney ëhonest and ethicalí.

I heard the President say: ëAnti-war critics are now claiming we manipulated the intelligence and misled the American people about why we went to war. The stakes in the global War on Terror are too high, and the national interest is too important, for politicians to throw out false charges. These baseless attacks send the wrong signal to our troops and to an enemy that is questioning Americaís will.í

I heard Dick Cheney say: ëThe suggestion thatís been made by some US senators that the President of the United States or any member of this administration purposely misled the American people on prewar intelligence is one of the most dishonest and reprehensible charges ever aired in this city.í

A few days later, I heard Dick Cheney complain that the ëliberalí media had distorted his remarks. As evidence, I heard him cite a headline that read: ëCheney says war critics ìdishonest, reprehensibleî.í Then, in the same speech, I heard him say: ëI will again say it is dishonest and reprehensible. This is revisionism of the most corrupt and shameless variety.í

*

I heard Congressman John Murtha, Democrat from Pennsylvania, a marine colonel decorated in the Korean and Vietnam Wars, and a prominent military hawk, with tears in his eyes call for the withdrawal of US troops within six months. I heard Scott McClellan say: ëIt is baffling that he is endorsing the policy positions of Michael Moore and the extreme liberal wing.í I heard Congressman Geoff Davis, Republican from Kentucky, say: ëAyman Zawahiri, Osama bin Ladenís deputy, as well as Abu Musab al Zarqawi, have made it quite clear in their internal propaganda that they cannot win unless they can drive the Americans out. And they know that they canít do that there, so theyíve brought the battlefield to the halls of Congress.í I heard Congresswoman Jean Schmidt, Republican from Ohio, say: ëCowards cut and run. Marines never do.í

I heard the President say: ëSome contend that we should set a deadline for withdrawing US forces. Let me explain why that would be a serious mistake. Setting an artificial timetable would send the wrong message to the Iraqis, who need to know that America will not leave before the job is done.í

I heard that, at an extraordinary ëmeeting of reconciliationí, a hundred Shia, Sunni and Kurdish leaders had signed a statement demanding ëa withdrawal of foreign troops on a specified timetableí.

I heard that their statement also said: ëNational resistance is a legitimate right of all nations.í

I heard Congresswoman Jean Schmidt say: ëThe big picture is that these Islamic insurgents want to destroy us. They donít like us. They donít like us because weíre black, weíre white, weíre Christian, weíre Jew, weíre educated, weíre free, weíre not Islamic. We can never be Islamic because we were not born Islamic. Now, this isnít the Islamic citizens. These are the insurgents. And it is their desire for us to leave so they can take over the whole Middle East and then take over the world. And I didnít learn this just in the last few weeks or the last few months. I learned this when I was at the University of Cincinnati in 1970, studying Middle Eastern history.í

*

I heard that, in Fallujah and elsewhere, the US had employed white phosphorus munitions, an incendiary device, known among soldiers as ëWillie Peteí or ëshake and bakeí, which is banned as a weapon by the Convention on Conventional Weapons. Similar to napalm, it leaves the victim horribly burned, often right through to the bone. I heard a State Department spokesman say: ëUS forces have used them very sparingly in Fallujah, for illumination purposes. They were fired into the air to illuminate enemy positions at night, not at enemy fighters.í Then I heard him say that ëUS forces used white phosphorus rounds to flush out enemy fighters so that they could then be killed with high explosive rounds.í Then I heard a Pentagon spokesman say that the previous statements were based on ëpoor informationí, and that ëit was used as an incendiary weapon against enemy combatants.í Then I heard the Pentagon say that white phosphorus was not an illegal weapon, because the US had never signed that provision of the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

I heard that US troops had accidentally come across an Interior Ministry bunker in Baghdad with more than 170 Sunni prisoners who had been captured by Shia paramilitary groups and tortured, some with electric drills. I heard Hussein Kamal, the deputy interior minister, say: ëOne or two detainees were paralysed and some had their skin peeled off various parts of their bodies.í I heard a State Department spokesman, Adam Ereli, say: ëWe donít practise torture. And we donít believe that others should practise torture.í

I heard that the Senate, after an hour of debate, voted to deny habeas corpus protection to prisoners in Guantanamo. The last time the US suspended the right to trial was during the Civil War.

I heard that a human rights organisation, Christian Peacemaker Teams, was distributing a questionnaire to inmates released from Iraqi prisons. Those surveyed were asked to check ëyesí or ënoí after each question:

Stripped of your clothing (nude)?
Beaten by hand (punches)?
Beaten by stick or rod?
Beaten by cables, wires or belts?
Held at gunpoint?
Hooded?
Had cold water poured on you?
Had a rope tied to your genitalia?
Called names, insults?
Threatened or touched by dogs?
Dragged by rope or belt?
Denied prayer or wudhu [ablution]?
Forced to perform sexual acts?
Were you raped or sodomised?
Did someone improperly touch your genitalia?
Did you witness any sexual acts while in detention?
Did you witness any rapes of men, women or children?
Urinated on or made to touch faeces, or had faeces thrown at you?
Denied sleep?
Denied food?
Witnessed any deaths?
Did you witness any torture or mistreatment to others?
Forced to wear womanís clothes? [Question for men only]
Were you burned or exposed to extreme heat?
Exposed to severe cold?
Subjected to electric shock?
Forced to act like a dog?
Forced in uncomfortable positions for a
lengthy period of time?
Forced to stand or sit in a painful manner for lengthy periods of time?
Lose consciousness?
Forced to hit others?
Hung by feet?
Hung by hands or arms?
Threatened to have family killed?
Family members detained?
Witnessed family members tortured?
Forced to sign anything?
Photographed?

I heard a man who had been in Abu Ghraib prison say: ëThe Americans brought electricity to my ass before they brought it to my house.í

*

I heard that the Lincoln Group, a public relations firm in Washington, had received $100 million from the Pentagon to promote the war. As well as bribing Iraqi journalists, often with monthly stipends, the Lincoln Group was writing its own articles and paying Iraqi newspapers to publish them. I heard that the articles, intending to have local appeal, had titles such as ëThe Sands Are Blowing toward a Democratic Iraqí or ëIraqi Forces Capture al-Qaida Fighters Crawling like Dogsí. I heard a Pentagon spokesman, Major General Rick Lynch, say: ëWe do empower our operational commanders with the ability to inform the Iraqi public, but everything we do is based on fact, not based on fiction.í I heard him quote the al-Qaida leader Ayman al-Zawahiri: ëRemember, half the battle is the battlefield of the media.í

I heard that the average monthly war coverage on the ABC, NBC and CBS evening newscasts, combined, had gone from 388 minutes in 2003, to 274 in 2004, to 166 in 2005.

I heard that 2110 US troops had died in Iraq and more than 15,881 had been wounded. Ninety-four per cent of those deaths had come after the ëMission Accomplishedí speech, the first two sentences of which were: ëMajor combat operations in Iraq have ended. In the Battle of Iraq, the United States and our allies have prevailed.í I heard there were now an average of a hundred insurgent attacks a day and an average of three American soldiers dying, the highest violence and casualty rates since the war began.

I heard that the President, in response to the increasing criticism, was going to reveal a new strategy for Iraq. On 30 November 2005, the administration issued a 35-page report: ëNational Strategy for Victory in Iraqí. On a page headed ëOur Strategy Is Workingí, I read that, on the ëEconomic Trackí, ëOur Restore, Reform, Build strategy is achieving resultsí; on the ëPolitical Trackí, ëOur Isolate, Engage and Build strategy is workingí; and on the ëSecurity Trackí, ëOur Clear, Hold and Build strategy is working.í General goals would be achieved in the ëshortí, ëmediumí or ëlongí term. The report ended with ëThe Eight Strategic Pillarsí (ëStrategic Pillar One: Defeat the Terrorists and Neutralise the Insurgency; Strategic Pillar Two: Transition Iraq to Security Self-Relianceí), like the Five Pillars of Islam or Seven Pillars of Wisdom. I heard that the ëStrategyí contained few specific details because it was the ëpublic version of a classified documentí. Then I heard that there was no classified document.

That same day, I heard the President address the US Naval Academy in Annapolis. I heard him say: ëWe will never back down. We will never give in. And we will never accept anything less than complete victory.í I heard him say: ëTo all who wear the uniform, I make you this pledge: America will not run in the face of car bombers and assassins so long as I am your commander in chief.í In a front of a huge sign that read plan for victory, he stood at a podium bearing a huge sign that read plan for victory. I wondered whether ëplaní was a verb.

That same day, I heard that members of the Christian Peacemaker Teams had been kidnapped by members of the Swords of Islam.

4 December 2005

Eliot Weinberger’s What I Heard about Iraq, which first appeared in the LRB in February, has been published as a book by Verso; 9/12 is published by Prickly Paradigm; What Happened Here: Bush Chronicles is forthcoming from New Directions.

LSD SYMPOSIUM IN BASEL, SWITZERLAND.

“International Symposium
on the occasion of the
100th Birthday of Albert Hofmann

13 to 15 January 2006
Convention Center Basel, Switzerland

On the occasion of the 100th birthday of Dr. Albert Hofmann on 11 January 2006, the Gaia Media Foundation stages an International Symposium on the most widely known and most controversial discovery of this outstanding scientist.

LSD – three letters that changed the world. Since 19 April 1943, the day Swiss chemist Dr. Albert Hofmann discovered this psychoactive substance, millions of people all over the world have experienced a higher reality with profound and psychological insights and spiritual renewal; created innovative social transformation, music, art, and fashion; were healed from addiction and depression; experienced enlightened insights into the human consciousness.

Some 60 years later more than 80 experts from all over the world will present an in-depth review of all aspects of this unique phenomenon, informing and discussing history, experiences, implications, assess the risks and benefits of this most potent of all psychoactive substances. LSD – a challenge in the past, now, and in the future.

Friday, 13 January 2006
From the Plants of God to LSD

07.30 Opening of the Registration Desk

08.15 ñ 08.45 Tune-in
Akasha Project
From the Sound of the Earthly Year to the Vibration of the LSD-25 Molecule
The Akasha Project presents a meditative electronic sound trip. Starting from the primeval sound of the earthly year, a C sharp with 136.10 hertz, we glide into the LSD-25 molecule’s octave analoguous field of frequency.

09.00 ñ 11.00 Panorama
From the Plants of the Gods to LSD (1)
Simultaneous translation Ger/Eng and Eng/Ger
Moderation: Lucius Werthm¸ller

Dieter A. Hagenbach and Lucius Werthm¸ller: Welcome and Opening of the Symposium

Lucius Werthm¸ller interviews Albert Hofmann: The Discovery of LSD-25

Felix Hasler, Ph.D.: What is Lysergic Acid Diethylamide?

Rolf Verres, M.D.: Appraisal of Albert Hofmannís Lifework

Rudolf Bauer, M.D.: Welcome speech of the Society for Medicinal Plant Research

Reynold Nicole: LSD, Albert Hofmann and the Quality of Time

Thomas Klett, Ph.D.: Albert Hofmann – Ernst J¸nger: Notes on a Long Friendship

Jochen Gartz, Ph.D.: Teonanacatl: The Discovery of Psilocybin by Albert Hofmann

Carl P. Ruck, Ph.D.: Eleusis: Retracing the Sacred Road

11.00 ñ 11.30 Break

11.30 ñ 13.00 Seminars/Workshops/Panels

Seminar
Ralph Metzner
Albert Hofmann, LSD and the Quest for the Alchemical Philosopherís Stone
(German, simultaneous translation Ger/Eng)

Originally, alchemy was a holistic system of methods for the physical, psychological and mental transformation, which is related to Indian yoga, among other things. Under pressure of the church esoteric methods of self-transformation were hidden in an obscure secret language. In modern age disapproved-of as superstition by natural science, alchemyís symbolism was being revived in Carl Jungís analytical psychology. The discovery of highly effective substances by Albert Hofmann and others, suitable for triggering physical, psychological and mental transformations, carries on smoothly where this western tradition of wisdom broke off.

Joint Seminar
Meaning and Implications of LSD for Science, Society, and Culture
With G¸nter Amendt, Rick Doblin, Felix Hasler, Martin A. Lee, Claudia M¸ller-Ebeling, Jeremy Narby, Juraj Styk
(German, English, simultaneous translation Ger/Eng, Eng/Ger)

About sixty years after its discovery, the significance of LSD in all spheres of life and knowledge becomes more and more evident. A high-calibre international team of experts discusses the manifold, and often unrecognized influences of LSD on their respective fields.

Seminar
Carl P. Ruck, Peter Webster
The Mythology and Chemistry of the Eleusinian Mysteries
(English, without translation)

A case pending before the United States Supreme Court presented by an appeal by the New Mexico chapter of the Uniao do Vegetal (UDV) Christian church cites the Eleusinian Mystery as precedent for a psychoactive Eucharist within a well-ordered religious ceremony. For approximately two millennia, beginning about 1500 BCE and ending with the conversion of the Greco-Roman world to Christianity, people gathered at the village of Eleusis outside ancient Athens to experience something that would change them and their expectations about the meaning of life and death forever.

Seminar
Wolf-Dieter Storl
Albert Hofmann and the Inspiration through Plant Devas
(German, without translation)

Mid-Twentieth Century: ´Wastelandª, Nuclear Fear and Desert of Materialism, and how the wise Alberich found the Nano-Flower which granted the Devas the access again and liberated the Flower Power Children from their exile.

Seminar
Society for Medicinal Plant Research (GA)
With Rudolf Brenneisen, Matthias Hamburger, Wolfgang Kubelka
Drug Discovery from Nature

Wolfgang Kubelka
“Pharmakon”: From Poison to Medicine – the Chemical Improvement of Nature?

The Greek term “Pharmakon” was used for poison, at the same time for antidote and medicine. During centuries, poisonous and healing plants have been detected by trial and error; it was not before 1800, however, that natural science became successful in isolating and identifying active substances from plants. With the development of chemistry the number of known structures increased enormously, and in many cases their mode of action became explainable. Albert Hofmann in his work, sometimes led by serendipity, gives us excellent examples for classical natural products chemistry. To which extent is it possible to find and improve natural compounds for their use in medicine?

Rudolf Brenneisen
Cannabis – From Phytocannabinoids to Endocannabinoids

The Cannabis plant has been an essential element of traditional medicine for thousands of years. Today, its medicinal use is becoming again popular mainly within self-medication. However, the discrepancy between empirical and evidence-based data is obvious and therefore implies intensive pharmacological and clinical research. On the other hand, the recently discovered Cannabis receptors and their endogenous ligands are potential targets for new therapeutic tools.

Matthias Hamburger
Contemporary Natural Product Drug Discovery

Natural products have been the historically most prolific source for drugs and inspiration for designing synthetic drug substances. Recently, their role in drug discovery has been challenged by the advent of combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput screening. Contemporary opportunities for natural products will be discussed in the larger context of methodological advances and new paradigms in the life sciences. Selected examples will highlight the continued importance of natural products in target discovery and as source for new drug templates with unique properties.

13.00 ñ 14.00 Break

14.00 ñ 16.00 Panorama

From the Plants of the Gods to LSD (2)
Simultaneous translation Ger/Eng and Eng/Ger

Moderation: Martin Frischknecht

Christian R‰tsch Ph.D.: Plants of the Gods: From the Jungle to the Laboratories of Pharmacologists

Ulrich Holbein: Writers and Drugs: From Charles Baudelaire to Aldous Huxley

Jonathan Ott: The Relatives of LSD: Ololiuqui und Ayahuasca

Ralph Metzner Ph.D.: The Beginning of LSD-Research: Canada, Harvard and Good Friday

David E. Nichols Ph.D.: The Heffter Research Institute USA and the Heffter Research Center Zurich: Centers for Hallucinogenic Research

Franz X. Vollenweider M.D.: The Effects of LSD: The State of Research Today

Felix Hasler Ph.D.: Special Case Switzerland: LSD-Research and Therapy

Rick Doblin Ph.D.: The Worldwide Use of LSD in Therapy and Medicine

16.00 ñ 16.30 Break

16.30 ñ 18.00 Seminars/Workshops/Panels

Seminar
Christian R‰tsch
From the Plants of the Gods to LSD
(German, simultaneous translation Ger/Eng)

Chemically, and as to its mental effects, LSD belongs to the group of ancient Mexican sacred drugs, and probably also to the Eleusinian drink of initiation. Albert Hofmannís phytochemical research enabled a special ethnopharmacological study of Mexican magic plants and mushrooms. In his seminar, the famous German ethnopharmacologist and author of the Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants goes into the complex significance of Albert Hofmannís research for ethno(pharmaco)logy.

Seminar
Alexander T. and Ann Shulgin
´Ask the Shulginsª
(English, consecutive summary in German)

Sasha and Ann will answer everything you wanted to know about psychoactive substances. Alexander “Sasha” T. Shulgin, is a pharmacologist and chemist known for his creation of new psychoactive chemicals. In 1967, he was introduced to the possibilities of MDMA by an undergrad at San Francisco State University at a time when very few people had tried MDMA. Though Shulgin did not invent the chemical, he did create a new synthesis process in 1976. Since that time, Shulgin has synthesized and bioassayed (self-tested) hundreds of psychoactive chemicals, recording his work in four books and in more than two hundred papers. He is a figure in the psychedelic community, speaking at conferences, granting frequent interviews, and instilling a sense of rational scientific thought into the world of self-experimentation and psychoactive ingestion Sasha’s partner, Ann Shulgin also conducted psychedelic therapy sessions with MDMA before it was scheduled in 1985.

Seminar
Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS)
With Rick Doblin, Charles S. Grob, John H. Halpern, Valerie Mojeiko, Andrew Sewell,
In the Midst of Darkness – Light:
US Government approved Psychedelic Therapy Research
(English, without translation)

Presentation by the principle investigators of all three FDA-approved psychedelic psychotherapy research projects in the US: Psilocybin in cancer patients with anxiety, MDMA in cancer patients with anxiety, and MDMA in subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Further, MAPS presents information about the case report study of LSD/Psilocybin in cluster headache and plans for the study of Ibogaine in treating substance abusers, as well as information on building a non-profit psychedelic and medical marijuana pharmaceutical company.

2 Seminars
16.30 ñ 17.10
Wolf-Dieter Storl
“The Spirit of Basel”
(German, without translation)

Basel has a long humanist tradition, be it the spirit of Desiderius Erasmus, the activities of Paracelsus, or the discoveries of Albert Hofmann. Wolf-Dieter Storl takes a look at mysterious facts and backgrounds: Baselís sacred geography since megalithic times; the Rhine as a sacred river, which embodies the triple-shaped pre-Indo-European goddess as a snake or a dragon; Basel as a centre of the cult of Celtic sun god Belenos; city of basilisks and sphinxes, city of alchemy and, today, city of chemistry.

17.10 ñ 17.20 Break

17.20 ñ 18.00

John Beresford
Psychedelic Agents and the Structure of Consciousness: Stages in a Session Using LSD and DMT
(English, without translation)

Experimental work with psychedelic agents permits a theoretical conception of consciousness unlike any posed by academic philosophy, analytic or existential. The sequence of stages revealed in a session adapts to the view that consciousness, at any rate human consciousness, possesses an inherent structure. What are the metaphysical consequences of this fact? In particular, how does the sequence of stages relate to activity in the brain? There is tension between the reality of the “LSD experience” ñ for example, karmic reaching-back to a significant past life event ñ and the reality of brain cells and their synapses. Speculation here may goad philosophy to explore the new paradigm we hear about.

18.00 ñ 18.30 Break

18.30 ñ 20.00 Seminars/Workshops/Panels

Film
Jon Hanna
Psychopticon Animatris: A Visual Tour of Hallucinatory Imagery in Animation
(English, without translation)

This collection of diverse clips showcases hallucinatory content and inspiration in pop-culture animation from the 1920s until today. Whether induced by alcohol, psychedelics or other drugs, dreams, music or meditation, the depiction of crossing liminal boundaries is frequently beautiful, often humorous, and always entertaining.

Panel
LSD and the Counterculture of the Sixties in Europe
With Brummbaer, Sergius Golowin, Urban Gwerder, Werner Pieper, Ronald Steckel, Simon Vinkenoog, Moderation: G¸nter Amendt
(German, without translation)

Contemporary witnesses share memories of the Sixties. They inform us about the specific movements of their country of origin and analyze the impact of LSD on the varied streams of the political and social counterculture.

2 Seminars
18.30 ñ 19.10
The Beckley Foundation / Amanda Feilding
LSD, Precious Key of Neuroscience
(English, without translation)

The Beckley Foundation Scientific Program conducts cutting edge research with LSD in human subjects, explores neurophysiological similarities between LSD and the mystical experience through observing modulations in the blood supply, brainwaves and a broad spectrum of cognitive changes. The Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Program advises governments and international agencies such as the UN. It produces reports and organises seminars at the House of Lords, which evaluate global drug policy and its impact on scientific and medical research.

19.10 ñ 19.20 Break

19.20 ñ 20.00
Stephen Abrams
Moving Sideways in Time: Miracles that Leave no Traces
(English, without translation)

This talk looks at synchronicity and the problem of coincidence in psychedelic experience. It brings together the views of Carl Jung and Alfred North Whitehead and considers the possibility that human fate can be understood in terms of a sideways motion in time between parallel worlds. The discussion may help to resolve the contradiction between the ubiquity of meaningful coincidence and the paucity of experimental evidence for so-called “psychic” phenomena. The speaker describes top-secret US government funded research at Oxford University.

2 Seminars
18.30 ñ 19.10
Jochen Gartz
From the Demystification of Teonanacatl to the Global Research on Psychoactive Mushroom Species
(German, simultaneous translation Ger/Eng)

Early in 1958, Albert Hofmann and collaborators succeeded in isolating psilocybin and psilocin from Mexican magic mushrooms for the first time. A new type of cultivation methods and a subsequent synthesis made it possible to analyze the structure of these agents and to produce them rationally. Since then many mushroom species, developing these alkaloids, have been found all over the world and have been chemically analyzed. Apart from these results of the research also the structure of a so far unknown derivative of psilocybin is being presented for the first time, which ñ as far as is known ñ only occurs in a single psychoactive kind of the inocybe species (a psilocybin mushroom).

19.10 ñ 19.20 Break

19.20 ñ 20.00
Ulrich Holbein
The Indescribable Doesnít Mind who Describes it!
Three Thousand Years of LSD between Literary Artistry and Drivel
(German, without translation)

Ancient, medieval, romantic and other minds and reporters never took LSD, maybe only beer or nothing at all; but in their reports based on personal experiences they describe unmistakable typical LSD visions. Then, when LSD became available, the ability to describe of those concerned seems to diminish. German writer Ulrich Holbein documents his astounding thesis with many mostly unknown citational finds from all times and territories.

2 Seminars

18.30 ñ 19.10
Michael Horowitz
“Kissing the Sky”: Writers on LSD
(English, without translation)

Psychedelic drugs and literature both tap into the realm of Creative Intelligence. Writers have used different literary genres and stylistic approaches to describe the LSD experience to readers and listeners. This lecture presents a survey of texts from Hofmann and Huxley to Leary and Lennon.

19.10 ñ 19.20 Break

19.20 ñ 20.00
Jonathan Ott
Albert Hofmann’s Contributions to Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research
(English, with consecutive translation Eng/Ger)

A survey of the major contributions of Albert Hofmann to the research of complex chemical and pharmacological properties of several natural substances and their derivatives, with special reference to the derivatives of ergot.

ï

Saturday, 14 January 2006
The Ecstatic Adventure

07.30 Opening of the Registration Desk

08.15 ñ 08.45 Tune-in
Star Sounds Orchestra
Mercury ñ Meditation

Resonance frequency is the “patron saint” of each successful communication so to speak; traditionally known as “Mercury”, “Hermes” and “Toth”. On this basis the Star Sounds Orchestra will get you into the right mood for the dayís events with a musical “Tune-in”, and turn your nervous system into a state of expectancy and bless you with a pleasant day.

09.00 ñ 11.00 Panorama
The Ecstatic Adventure (1)
Simultaneous Translation Ger/Eng and Eng/Ger

Moderation: Martin Frischknecht

Carlo Zumstein M.D.: Transcendence and Back ñ In Favor of a Culture of Netherworld Journey

Juraj Styk M.D.: Psycholytic and Psychedelic Therapies

Mathias Brˆckers: The Right to get High

Martin A. Lee: LSD and CIA and KGB

Ralph Metzner Ph.D.: The Meaning of Set and Setting

Micky Remann: Baptism, Wellness and Back: Water as an initiate Psychedelic of Nature

Alex Grey: Psychedelic Art in the 20th and 21st Century

11.00 ñ 11.30 Break

11.30 ñ 13.00 Seminars/Workshops/Panels

Seminar
Alex Grey
Impact and Influence of LSD on Art and Culture
(English, consecutive translation Eng/Ger)

Artist Alex Grey will trace the emergence of psychedelic imagery in 20th and 21st century graphics and fine art, including film and music. Grey will focus primarily on the art of painting and the current relevance of consciousness expansion on the ecstatic aesthetic in contemporary art. A Psychedelic or Entheo-Art that was born in the crucible of the Sixties has matured to the deeper and more spiritually compelling expressions of today.

Panel
Psychedelic Therapy: Chances and Risks
With: Rick Doblin, Charles S. Grob, Michael Schlichting, Manuel Schoch, Juraj Styk; Moderation: Martin Frischknecht
(German, simultaneous translation Eng/Ger)

It probably was Italian psychoanalyst Baroni who, in his “Confessions High on Mescaline” in 1931, first published on the use of psychedelics in psychotherapy. But it wasnít before clinical experiments with LSD (discovered in 1943) that the therapeutic potential of altered states of consciousness was brought to light. During the sixties, psycholysis was being practiced in 18 European treatment centers on a regular basis. Through continuous further development and optimization, today we can refer to a fully developed, therapeutically valid and secure method. A high-calibre team of experts informs about the present-day level of knowledge as well as about chances and risks, using hallucinogenic substances in psychotherapy.

Seminar
Alexander T. and Ann Shulgin
Pihkal and Tihkal: A Chemical Love Story
(English, consecutive translation Eng/Ger)

“We met, married and formed a research team about twenty five years ago. This called upon a background of psychedelic drug invention and exploration of the previous twenty years, but it added a new dimension to this area of exploration. Besides the definition of a new material in synthetic and analytical terms, there is now a social and psychological aspect that can be explored. The increasing reluctance of the scientific research community to accept these new discoveries led to the writing and publication of the books Pihkal and Tihkal.”

Seminar
Martin A. Lee
LSD and CIA ñ Demonizing of LSD & the Suppression of Research
(English, simultaneous translation Eng/Ger)

The CIA and the US military were both actively involved in anti-LSD propaganda (chromosome damage scare, etc.). The CIA and the army funded scientists favoring the psychosis-producing view of LSD as opposed to researchers exploring therapeutic applications. Martin A. Lee analyses how the CIA ties with the US Food & Drug Administration and how the National Institute of Mental Health, and the Public Health Service influenced U.S. policy decisions regarding LSD research and prohibition in the Sixties.

2 Seminars
Felix Hasler, Franz X. Vollenweider
Requirements for the Work with Hallucinogens (60í)
(German, without translation)

With practical examples the clinical, scientific, therapeutic as well as legal and ethical general conditions allowing the work with hallucinogens in Switzerland will be explained and discussed.

Rael Cahn
Psychedelic States and Meditation (30í)
(English, without translation)

Rael Cahn presents results of EEG studies with Tibetan monks in order to measure brain activities during meditation compared with studies with students under the influence of psilocybin. Among other things, with these studies research was made on how visual and auditory stimuli occuring during these altered states of consciousness were being assimilated. Similarities between these two kinds of experience suggest to take a closer look at connections and differences between meditative and psychedelic states. The increased switching-rate during binocular rivalry stimulation, as has been observed during both meditation and under the influence of psilocybin, is being treated exemplarily.

13.00 ñ 14.00 Break

14.00 ñ 16.00 Panorama
The Ecstatic Adventure (2)
Simultaneous translation Ger/Eng and Eng/Ger

Moderation: Lucius Werthm¸ller

Michael Horowitz: LSD: The Antidote to Everything

Sue Hall: Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds ñ The Sixties

Martin A. Lee: Summer of Love and Woodstock ñ LSD and Counterculture

Simon Vinkenoog: From Amsterdam to Zurich ñ The Sixties in Europe

G¸nter Amendt Ph.D.: The Empire Strikes Back: The Demonization of LSD

Barry Miles: LSD and its Impact on Art, Design and Music

Hans Cousto: The Psychedelic Revival of the Nineties: The Global Techno, Rave and Trance Rituals

16.00 ñ 16.30 Break

16.30 ñ 18.00 Seminars/Workshops/Panels

Seminar
Hans Cousto
The Psychedelic Revival of the Nineties: The Global Techno, Rave and Trance Rituals
(German, simultaneous translation Ger/Eng)

Well-known drug expert and musicologist Hans Cousto demonstrates how different preferences in the use of psychoactive substances within the techno and party culture evolved, and the way these have influenced the cultural development as a whole. He especially explains the differences between entheogenically acting psychedelics like LSD and psilocybin, emphatically acting entactogenes like MDMA and stimuli like amphetamine and cocaine as well as different kinds and dangers of mixed consumption.

Panel
Natural and Pharmacological Paths to Expanded States of Consciousness
With Ralph Metzner, Bea Rubli, Manuel Schoch, Franz X. Vollenweider, Carlo Zumstein, Moderation: Lucius Werthm¸ller
(German, without translation)

Many spiritual traditions disapprove of the use of drugs in order to produce altered or expanded states of consciousness as inadmissible short cuts of a natural spiritual development. They refer to pharmacologically induced states as “artificial paradises” and claim that these states differ basically from states, which appear spontaneously or are being induced through persistent spiritual practicing. A group of consciousness researchers experienced in travelling inner worlds discusses the legitimacy of using psychoactive substances as well as common grounds and differences of these states and their long-term implications as to personality development.

2 Seminars
16.30 ñ 17.10
John Dunbar, John “Hoppy” Hopkins, Barry Miles
LSD and its Visual Impact
(English, without translation)

Three contemporary witnesses uncover the historic roots of 1960ís psychedelic art explosion, giving us impressions on the climate of experimentation across all art forms, cross-fertilization of ideas, life styles and drugs. They will take some significant examples from this very wide field: Influences on the Beatles, with anecdotes and sketches by Lennon under LSD; recordings of Mark Boyleís early lightshows for UFO, the legendary nightclub; poster art of the London psychedelic school 1966-68 compared with its U.S. counterpart and present-day trance/dance wall hangings.

17.10 ñ 17.20 Break

17.20 ñ 18.00
Robert Forte
Lets Save Democracy: Timothy Leary and the Popularization of LSD
(English, without translation)

More than any other single individual, Timothy Leary is to thank, or blame, for the popularization of LSD. Here we honor the merits and madness of Timothyís exuberant ministry within the social, political, and environmental context of the 1960s.

Earth Erowid and Fire Erowid
Current Views of Acid: What do LSD Users Say?
(English, simultaneous translation Eng/Ger)

In the 40 years since it first became widely available, LSD has solidified its position as the quintessential hallucinogen, front and center of an enduring psychedelic movement. But what role does LSD play today? How available is it? How many people ingest it? Why do they try it and what do they think of it? We will take a look at the way people think about and use this classic psychedelic.

2 Seminars

16.30 ñ 17.10
Torsten Passie
Thinking, Remembering, Guessing: LSD in Cognition Research, from 1950 to this Day
(German, without translation)

With changes of model conceptions to cognitive functions ñ from simple psychological and biological models to more complex neuropsychological and brainphysiological models ñ LSD has temporarily played an important role. Thus one wanted to find out through which neurotransmitters cognitive functions are being passed on. A number of experiments were carried out with which the implications of LSD on cognitive functions like thinking, remembering, associating, the guessing of time and so forth were analyzed. This widely scattered and little known research will be systematically presented and looked at within its historical and actual framework.

17.10 ñ 17.20 Break

17.20 ñ 18.00
Torsten Passie
Lasting Change of Personality as After-effect of Controlled Taking LSD: What Do We Know?
(German, without translation)

Already early on, the systematic use of LSD in research and therapy speaks against the assumption that LSD would trigger a “model psychosis.” After taking LSD many test persons showed positive, sometimes personality-changing after-effects. The results of these experiments were the beginning of psychedelic (as distinct from psycholytic) therapy with single and very intense sessions with large doses. Systematic research was also done on this kind of (after) effects in a number of especially designed experiments. Both the experiments and the personality changing effects after psychedelic treatments will be presented and closely analyzed in this lecture.

18.00 ñ 18.30 Break

18.30 ñ 20.00 Seminars/Workshops/Panels

2 Seminars
18.30 ñ 19.10
Ralph Metzner
Expanding Consciousness – Seven Phases of Socio-Cultural Transformation
(English, simultaneous translation Eng/Ger)

The Discovery of the consciousness-expanding substance LSD at the height of WWII synchronistically coincided with the invention of nuclear weaponry. As the world geopolitical order attempted to come to terms with the existence of these horrendous weapons of mass destruction, the next few decades saw the birth and growth of a multifaceted movement of consciousness expansion in all areas of society and culture. We can identify a series of profound social-cultural transformations proceeding in seven stages, like the octave pattern described by Gurdjieff. These transformative movements represent a creative response of the collective human psyche to the evolutionary survival challenge posed by nuclear weaponry, world-wide environmental devastation and runaway population growth.

19.10 ñ 19.20 Break

19.20 ñ 20.00
Rolf Verres
LSD, Meditation and Music
(German, without translation)

Psychedelic music of the 1970s does not conform to present-day Zeitgeist any more. Albert Hofmannís preferences are with certain kinds of classical music. Why? This seminar will present examples of music which Albert Hofmann loves.

Panel
Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds: LSD and the Counterculture of the Sixties
With John Dunbar, John “Hoppy” Hopkins, Michael Horowitz, Martin A. Lee, Barry Miles , Moderation: Stephen Abrams
(English, simultaneous translation Eng/Ger)

Without a doubt the legendary sixties were the peak of the “ecstatic adventure”. LSD’s rapid dissemination and the upcoming counterculture of hippies and students were fervently discussed topics of this period of new departures and general renewal. Several decades later, witnesses of the times remember the wild years in England and the USA. The turned-on Beatles and their trippy songs, Flower Power, Be-ins and Sit-ins in San Francisco, Woodstock in the acid fever and much more will be exchanged and remembered in this English-American panel.

Seminar
Heffter Research Center / University Hospital of Psychiatry Zurich
With Mark Geyer, Charles S. Grob, David E. Nichols, Franz X. Vollenweider
From Molecule to Mind: Recent Advances of Psychedelic Research
(English, without translation)

Widely known researchers of the HRC will present following topics:

David E. Nichols: Neurochemistry and Molecular Action of LSD

Mark Geyer: Behavioral Pharmacology of Hallucinogens: A System Approach

Franz X. Vollenweider: Psilocybin and itís Brain: A Neuroscience Perspective

Charles S. Grob: Hallucinogens in Clinical Practise: Basic Principles and Results

2 Seminars
18.30 ñ 19.10
Mathias Brˆckers
From “Open Mind” to “Open Source”: how the Counterculture of the Sixties led to the Personal Computer and to Unlimited Information
(German, simultaneous translation Ger/Eng)

Albert Hofmannís discovery has not only significantly marked 20th century culture it also influenced technology. Personal computer, Internet and “Open Source” software would not have been developed the way the were without LSD-induced inspirations. “Acid heads” laid the foundation for what we nowadays call computer revolution and information age.

19.10 ñ 19.20 Break

19.20 ñ 20.00
Mark McCloud
Bring the Fire! A Pictorial History of LSD Blotter Art
(English, without translation)

A colorful presentation of forty years of art history on LSD impregnated blotting paper. Over one hundred images of “The Greatest Hits” of the past four decades from the worldís biggest collection will be shown.

2 Seminars

18.30 ñ 19.10
Wolfgang Sterneck
LSD and Sexuality
(German, without translation)

Filled with the psychedelic movementís euphoria, Timothy Leary described LSD as “the most potent aphrodisiac ever found by man”. Meanwhile this view has given way to a more realistic approach, which describes both potentials and dangers in an appropriate way. LSD can, also in the erotic context, open up new and so far unknown spaces, but it also can totally close them. The ìcosmic orgasmî is as much part of the spectrum of perception as is a total distance between partners who are captivated in their own worlds.

19.10 ñ 19.20 Break

19.20 ñ 20.00
Fred Weidmann
Albert Hofmannís, Fred Weidmannís and Gaiaís “Romantic Principle”
(German, without translation)

Since the inside equals the outside, small things may equal big things. Pictures turn into means of knowledge, if small-scale creation gives an idea of the allover creation. The “Romantic principle” reads: while creating beauty in miniature, you help to improve the whole. Through interaction of doing and looking the painter becomes Gaiaís lover. This lecture is based on a correspondence with Albert Hofmann.

20.00 ñ 20.15 Break

20.15 ñ approx. 22.15

Concert
Introduction by Hans Cousto
Akasha Project
Barnim Schulze

The substance’s frequencies, measured in the infrared spectrum, are being transposed to octave analogous sounds. By logically using data thus obtained to all musical parameters like sound modulations, tempi and frequencies, a sometimes strangely meditative sound originates: quantum music which Barnim Schulze calls “Klangwirkstoff”, active sound substance. While you tune in to these molecular fields of sound and rhythm, you may state for yourself in which way the experiencing of substance analogous effects via perceiving octave ananologous sounds is possible.

Star Sounds Orchestra
Steve Schroyder, Jens Zygar

The Star Sounds Orchestra will musically interpret harmonical occurences at the moment of the discovery of LSD. This psychedelic symphony in five movements describes significant astronomical positions of our solar system’s planets at the time of this moment of birth of a new door of awareness, so important for psychedelic history. Musical citations from the history of psychedelics in connection with the sounds of planets are the starting point for a spherical trip of the cosmic kind.

ï

Sunday, 15 January 2006
New Dimensions of Consciousness

07.30 Opening of the Registration Desk

08.15 ñ 08.45 Tune-in
Banco de Gaia
Toby Marks

With his sensitive electronic style mix of Techno, House, Ambient-Trance, and musical influences from Arabian, Indian and Far East areas, English composer and musician Toby Marks helps us tune into the last day of the Symposium, opening our mind and our senses to a variety of new dimensions of consciousness.

09.00 ñ 11.00 Panorama

New Dimensions of Consciousness (1)
Simultaneous translation Ger/Eng and Eng/Ger

Moderation: Lucius Werthm¸ller

Ralph Metzner Ph.D.: The Meaning of Psychedelic Experience

Rick Doblin: The Revival of Psychedelic Medicine

G¸nter Amendt Ph.D.: No Drugs ñ No Future: Sketches of an Adequate Drug Policy

Christian R‰tsch Ph.D.: The New Rituals: LSD as a Sacred Substance

Ronald Steckel: Freedom and Hedonism: The Way of the West

Claudia M¸ller-Ebeling Ph.D.: LSD and Creativity

Rolf Verres M.D.: LSD, Meditation and Music

11.00 ñ 11.30 Break

11.30 ñ 13.00 Seminars/Workshops/Panels

Seminar
Stanley Krippner
LSD and Psychic Phenomena: Attempting to Grasp the Unpredictable and the Intangible
(English, simultaneous translation Eng/Ger)

LSD-type drugs have often been used to facilitate so-called “psychic phenomena”, in other words, those experiences that seem to defy mainstream science’s concepts of time, space, and energy. An Italian investigation met with meager results, and few formal studies have been attempted since. Such hypothetical phenomena as telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, and psychokinesis appear to be intangible, and peopleís laboratory reactions to LSD often are unpredictable. However, there are several anecdotal reports that could serve as the basis for continued exploration, especially those coming from shamans’ usage of such substances as ayahuasca and their contemporary use as religious sacraments.

Panel
Towards an Adequate Drug Policy
With G¸nter Amendt, Mathias Brˆckers, Roger Liggenstorfer, Luc Saner, Moderation: Thomas Kessler
(German, simultaneous translation, Ger/Eng)

The American “War on Drugs” is but the visible peak of an international drug policy which measures everything with a different yardstick and is strongly defined by economic interests and irrational motives. A drug policy in keeping with the times should be oriented towards the risks of drugs, not towards their being legal or illegal.
Switzerland ñ and above all the city of Basel ñ has taken on a role as trailblazer as far as a pragmatically oriented drug policy is concerned; even though the National Council wasted the chance, last year, to discuss new, already completed forward-looking bills. A group of drug experts, politicians, journalists and activists outlines ways out of a hopeless situation towards an adequate drug policy in keeping with the times.

11.30 – 12.10
Seminar
Sue Hall
LSD – A Tool for Life
(English, without translation)

LSD may be more versatile than generally believed. This seminar will explore the use of different dosages.

12.10 ñ 12.20 Break

12.20 ñ 13.00
Jeremy Narby
The Future of Biology
(English, without translation)

The idea of a kind of intelligence active throughout nature is gaining support within the scientific community, affirming a view long held by indigenous people and shamans. Shamanic use of such plants as ayahuasca and tobacco deals centrally with contact with other beings including plants and animals. Ayahuasca and LSD enhance peopleís concern with the natural world. Hallucinogens are tools for exploring little-known facets of the human mind, for thinking ourselves as animals, and as predators, and for rethinking our place in nature and our relationship with other species. Biology has a date with shamanism and with altered states of consciousness.

2 Seminars

11.30 – 12.10
Micky Remann
Water as a Medium and the Muse of Consciousness
(German, without translation)

It’s in the nature of nature that it opens its artistic realities preferably to the consciousness, which dives under the surface. An entry into this world is offered by a stay in water where nobody can avoid experiencing an altered functioning of senses first-hand. The way eye, ear, consciousness and feeling are being touched in water, depends on which sensory stimuli are being transported there. What happens when water becomes the medium for multisensory, multimedia stagings, is to be demonstrated with pictures, sounds and tales.

12.10 ñ 12.20 Break

12.20 ñ 13.00
Peter Webster
Psychoactive Plants and Human Evolution
(English, without translation)

Psychoactive plants have been omnipresent during all the stages of hominid evolution – but is there any evidence that they may have had an important influence or been the evolutionary catalyst for the emergence of modern humans? Mythological tales of a “forbidden fruit” acting to awaken humankind from their ìnaturalî or protohuman state are not uncommon, but some recent findings of science now seem to give new meaning to such stories.

13.00 ñ 14.00 Break

14.00 ñ 16.00 Panorama
New Dimensions of Consciousness (2)
Simultaneous translation Ger/Eng and Eng/Ger

Moderation: Lucius Werthm¸ller

Stanley Krippner Ph.D.: The Future of Religion: Dogma or Transcendental Experience?

Jeremy Narby Ph.D.: The Future of Human Consciousness

Ulrich Holbein: Future Society: “Brave New World” or “Island”

Ralph Metzner Ph.D.: Psychedelics and a new Paradigm: Personal Responsibility and Self-Reliance

Alexander T. Shulgin Ph.D.: New Psychedelics and their Specific Effects

Mathias Brˆckers: Handling Hallucinogens: Visions and Initiatives

Carlo Zumstein M.D.: Neo-Schamanism for a Neo-Consciousness

Albert Hofmann Ph.D., h.c.: The Meaning of LSD from the Discoverers Point of View

16.00 ñ 16.30 Break

16.30 ñ 18.00 Seminars/Workshops/Panels

Seminar
Claudia M¸ller-Ebeling
LSD and Creativity
(German, simultaneous translation Ger/Eng)

The well-known art historian and ethnologist gives a comprehensive summary of creativity research in the sixties and seventies. Furthermore, she allows an insight into the work of artists who implemented, in their work, personal LSD experiences, or who have met Albert Hofmann personally.

Panel
Consciousness and Future Society
With Mathias Brˆckers, Stanley Krippner, Ralph Metzner, Jeremy Narby, Micky Remann, Moderation: Martin Frischknecht
(English, consecutive summarization in German)

“The evolution of mankind is in the alteration of consciousness,” states Albert Hofmann. Having a close look at different developments on our planet, we soon realize how urgently a new consciousness is needed, in order to do justice to the requirements of a future existence worth living. Representatives and experts from different spheres of life and fields of knowledge discuss the major challenges, which we only can meet with an altered or expanded consciousness.

2 Seminars
16.30 ñ 17.10
Manuel Schoch
Meditation and Mind-expanding Drugs: complementary or irritating?
(German, without translation)

The focal points of this lecture are: the power of silence in a state of mind-expansion; the understanding of the emotional chain and its effects in meditation; drugs as mystic experience of timelessness; consciousness-expanding drugs as therapeutic means without the “detour” via the past.

17.10 ñ 17.20 Break

17.20 ñ 18.00
Seminar
Ronald Steckel
The Way of the West, or the Rise of the Occident
(German, without translation)

This lecture deals with aspects of the present-day consciousness-mutation: with the new (cosmic) view of man as a new paradigm; with the significance of the “individual” with the “all”; with “initiations” and “paths”; with the “Occident” as a spiritual Fort Knox.

Workshop
Carlo Zumstein
Everybody his own Shaman
(German, without translation)

Everybody needs his own myth of life. In ancient cultures shamans were not solely healers. Above all they were visionaries: creators and organizers of their communityís self-image and view of the world. For centuries we have left this to the church, to the government and to schools. In this workshop Carlo Zumstein demonstrates how a present-day shamanism opens oneís own doors towards dreams and visionary powers – for a fulfilled self-creation within new communities.

2 Seminars
16.30 ñ 17.10
Bruce Eisner
LSD, Its Past and Potential
(English, without translation)

Bruce Eisner explores LSD’s past, including its ancient lineage, uses in research, significance to the counterculture of the Sixties and the consequences of its suppression. Within this context, he will bring his own experiences and the development of the Island Project, named after the work of Aldous Huxley. Bruce Eisner covers the host of potential future roles for LSD including psychotherapy, spiritual/religious awareness, creativity and problem solving, in the experimental production of new cultural memes and the evolution of a neo-Eleusinian mystery.

17.10 ñ 17.20 Break

17.20 ñ 18.00
Myron Stolaroff
The Future of Consciousness
(English, without translation)

The average person today is far below the level of ultimate consciousness. With Albert Hofmann’s creation of LSD, and with competent support and guidance, vast new areas of discovery and understanding can be explored. Maintaining these findings require intention and discipline, as new learned values may slip away. Attention will be given on how to best retain these fresh discoveries, and keep them active in our life. Also covered will be examining sources of difficulties and how they can be avoided.

18.00 ñ 18.30 Break

18.30 ñ 19.30
Closing Ceremony

For three days we have obtained a variety of suggestions and information on all aspects of LSD or discussed, in the words of its discoverer: Insights and Outlooks in connection with this highly potent substance. In this closing ceremony with musical framework famous speakers will draw balance, pay tribute to Albert Hofmann and take a hopeful look at the future of the human consciousness.

LINK COURTESY RICHARD PLEUGER!